July 20, 2000

TAU NEUTRINO DISCOVERED. The first direct evidence for the tau neutrino, the third kind of neutrino has been observed at Fermilab. They saw neutrinos hit a target and produce tau leptons.

April 27, 2000

UNIVERSE IN ITS INFANCY. The first detailed images reveal the structure that existed in the universe when it was a tiny fraction of its current age and 1,000 times smaller and hotter. The images from the BOOMERANG project are already shedding light on some of cosmology's outstanding mysteries -- the nature of the matter and energy that dominate intergalactic space and whether space is "curved" or "flat."

EXTRA DIMENSIONS? Extra spacetime dimensions might permit the physical forces to become unified at much lower energies. Why don't we see these dimensions?

June 30, 1999

PROGRESS ON UNDERSTANDING NEUTRINO OSCILLATIONS. In Japan, an accelerator and an underground detector 250 km away are teaming up to look for an exotic property of neutrinos.

June 21, 1999

THE ARROW OF TIME has been measured at CERN and Fermilab by measuring CP violation (CP is related to the slight asymmetry between matter and anti-matter).

July 31, 2000

ARE ANTIPARTICLE AND PARTICLE DECAYS DIFFERENT? "Understanding the tiny differences between the laws of physics for matter and for antimatter may help explain why the Universe contains far more matter than antimatter."

INTRIGUING INDICATIONS OF CP VIOLATION IN B MESONS have turned up at Fermilab. CP is a symmetry that turns a particle into an antiparticle (charge conjugation, or C) and then sends the particle through a looking glass (parity reflection, or P).

December 19, 1998

A REPULSIVE FORCE IN THE UNIVERSE seems to be at work on a cosmic scale, at least partly neutralizing the attractive force of gravity.


The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize for Physics to two Dutch physicists who created the mathematical foundations of the Standard Model of particle physics. The award went to:

Professor Gerardus 't Hooft, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, and Professor Emeritus Martinus J.G. Veltman, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

The Academy stated: "The two researchers are being awarded the Nobel Prize for having placed particle physics theory on a firmer mathematical foundation. They have in particular shown how the theory may be used for precise calculations of physical quantities. Experiments at accelerator laboratories in Europe and the USA have recently confirmed many of the calculated results.

The Academy's citation: "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics."

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